Linking Trade and Security: Evolving Institutions and Strategies in Asia, Europe, and the United States (co-edited with Vinod Aggarwal). New York: Springer (2012).
Despite the tendency of some contemporary scholarship to deal with economics and security as separate spheres, the linkages between these two areas are vital in determining the nature of international politics. This edited volume addresses linkages between trade and security by examining the influence of security factors in driving trade policy measures and the corresponding implications of different types of trade arrangements for international security. Ultimately, the project shows that several elements—traditional economic factors, traditional security factors, and human security factors—can affect the development of trade agreements and unilateral policies, and that trade policies may have both a direct and an indirect effect on traditional and human security. The project focuses on Asia, a region where economics is increasingly important but many security issues still linger unresolved, as a primary setting to test trade linkage theories. It also provides a comparative perspective through examination of how the EU and US have used their trade policies to achieve non-economic goals and how these policies have influenced their security environment. Case studies in this project cover key trade institutions and agreements including the World Trade Organization, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN Plus Three, the East Asia Summit, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and bilateral preferential trade agreements. This project was generously supported by the Center for Global Partnership and the Korea Foundation.
Responding to a Resurgent Russia: Russian Policy and Responses from the European Union and the United States (co-edited with Vinod Aggarwal). New York: Springer (2011).
In this volume, a set of issue and country experts tackle the questions surrounding the challenges of a resurgent Russia for the world order as well as for relations between the European Union and the United States. My co-editor and I begin the volume with a brief introduction laying out the circumstances of Russia’s rise, after which the book proceeds in three sections. In the first, Russian scholars tackle the topic of how a newly resurgent Russia sees the world. The second section examines Russia’s role in the contemporary global political economy in terms of trade and financial flows and nuclear energy. The third section looks at American and European responses to Russia. In the conclusion, Aggarwal and I draw together the findings from each of the chapters and present some broad propositions regarding Russia’s rise and the challenges that it presents for the US, EU and the international order in the years to come. The implications of this collection are very broad and far-reaching, with ramifications for each of the players involved as well as for the development and refinement of general international relations theories concerning global conflict and cooperation, making the book relevant for both policy-makers and scholars of international relations, Russian studies, and international political economy. This project was generously supported by the European Union Center of Excellence and the Berkeley APEC Study Center.
“Japan in 2007: A Divided Government” (with Steven Vogel). Asian Survey, vol. 48, no. 1 (January 2008), pp. 97-106. download
“The Trade-Security Nexus in the Asia-Pacific” (with Vinod Aggarwal). In Aggarwal & Govella (eds.) Linking Trade and Security: Evolving Institutions and Strategies in Asia, Europe, and the United States. New York: Springer (2012). download
“Trade Linkages to Traditional and Non-Traditional Security: Lessons and Prospects” (with Vinod Aggarwal). In Aggarwal & Govella (eds.) Linking Trade and Security: Evolving Institutions and Strategies in Asia, Europe, and the United States. New York: Springer (2012). download
“Introduction: The Fall of the Soviet Union and the Resurgence of Russia” (with Vinod Aggarwal) In Aggarwal & Govella (eds.) Responding to a Resurgent Russia: Russian Policy and Responses from the European Union and the United States. New York: Springer (2011). download
“Russian Foreign Policy: Challenging the Western Liberal International Order?” (with Vinod Aggarwal) In Aggarwal & Govella (eds.) Responding to a Resurgent Russia: Russian Policy and Responses from the European Union and the United States. New York: Springer (2011). download
Leaders of Liberalization or Partners of Protectionism? Multinational Firms in the Japanese Political Economy (manuscript in progress)
This project examines the effects of internationalization on the politics of trade. Although many countries have opened their markets to multinational firms, there is significant variation in how these firms behave once they enter a host country. How do multinational firms’ political strategies evolve as they gain access to a host country? Why do multinational firms become leaders of liberalization in some cases but partners of protectionism in others? I argue that the early stages of trade liberalization shape firms’ strategies and their propensity to form political coalitions with local actors, which has consequences for the subsequent trajectory of political change. I test my theory through a cross-sectoral analysis of Japan, which provides a fruitful context in which to multinational firms because it was remarkably closed to the latter until a relative boom in inward foreign direct investment in the 1990s and 2000s. I draw on qualitative and quantitative data from interviews, direct observation, archival material, market data, and newspaper articles collected during over three years of field research in Tokyo and Washington, DC. In particular, I focus on in-depth case studies of four sectors which display different patterns of initial liberalization: agriculture, pharmaceuticals, insurance, and information technology. I also provide extensions of the theory to other sectors such as commercial aviation, automobiles, telecommunications, luxury goods, soft drinks, and retail. I find that while foreign multinational firms were initially dependent on their home governments to influence Japanese policy, opportunities for these firms to employ political strategies both independently and in coalition with Japanese partners increased with the opening of the Japanese economy and society. However, these changes were not uniform across sectors. In cases of broad liberalization, multinational firms pushed for the greater liberalization and harmonization, while in cases of narrow liberalization, these firms became insiders who preferred to maintain the market barriers that gave them privileged access in the first place. These findings contribute to the study of political economy by shedding light on how globalization may be reshaping the political arena in countries around the world. This research has been generously supported by the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Harvard University, the Japan Foundation, the Boren Fellowship, the University of Tokyo, Waseda University, the UC Berkeley Center for Japanese Studies, and the UC Berkeley Department of Political Science.
“Japan’s Quest to Preserve the Trans-Pacific Partnership.” Asia Dialogue, October 26, 2017. link
“Regional Architecture and Japan” (with See-Won Byun, Leif-Eric Easley, Daniel Kliman, Kei Koga, Oriana Mastro, Ryo Sahashi, Kevin Shepard, and Ting Xu). CSIS Pacific Forum Issues & Insights, vol. 10, no. 9 (March 2010). download
“Old Friends, New Times: The Perception Gap and the Future of the U.S.-Japan Alliance” (with Michele Fugiel Gartner, Dianna Hummel, Kerry Nankivell, and Sophia Yang). CSIS Pacific Forum Issues & Insights, vol. 8, no. 19 (October 2008). download
“The Alliance: Redefining Relationships Between the U.S. and the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century” (with John Friend, Ana Villavicencio, Adrian Yi, and Stephanie Young). CSIS Pacific Forum Issues & Insights, vol. 8, no. 14 (September 2008). download
“Reinvigorating the ASEAN Regional Forum: Preventive Diplomacy and Beyond” (with Shanshan Wang and Alan Hao Yang). CSIS Pacific Forum Issues & Insights, vol. 8, no. 9 (August 2008). download
“Non-Traditional Security: A Panacea for Asian Regional Institutions?” Berkeley APEC Study Center News, vol. 10, no. 1 (Fall 2007). download
“Accommodating the Rise of China: Toward a Successful U.S.-Japan Alliance in 2017.” CSIS Pacific Forum Issues & Insights, vol. 7, no. 16 (September 2007). download